The log of the voyage of “The Canterbury” from Glasgow to Dunedin – 13 November 1879

The log of the voyage of the The Canterbury from Glasgow, Scotland 13 November 1879.  Arrived Dunedin, New Zealand 28 January 1880. 76 days sailing.  The Canterbury has made the quickest sailing this season.

The Canterbury 1851

Glasgow, Thursday, Nov 13th 1879.1  Left the Tail of the Bank this afternoon about 4 o’clock, under tow of  The Flying Huntress  and proceeded along the north Channel all night.  49 miles.2

Nov 14th.   During the day on our watch on deck we lashed
[indecipherable] & us [indecipherable] among with the [indecipherable] We are now going ahead  about  the rate of eight knots with a fair wind.3

Saturday 15th Nov.   Blowing rather fresh this morning all hands on deck reefing the mainsail. Wind keeping steady.  Lat  55.13N  Long 13.53W   Distance 179 miles  Course  S 87°W.4

[Sunday, Nov. 16th] [ink washed out]   Lat 55.4N Long 17.17W  Distance 119 miles Course  S 85°W

Monday 17th [Nov.]   Still blowing a fresh breeze of wind and ahead sky rather hazy. We put her about at seven o’clock,  a cross sea running  Lat 53.4 N   Long 51.1W  Distance 111 miles  Course S 42°E.5

November,Monday 18th.  Steady wind and rather cloudy weather. All sail set but still the wind’s ahead.  Lat 52.42  N  Long 15.7W Distance 64 miles Course S 40° W

Wednesday,19th [Nov.]   All sail set in the morning. Took all the light sails off her towards the latter part of the day as the breeze freshened up considerably. Cloudy weather, with a cross sea running  Lat 50.28W Long 15.40W   Distance 118 miles Course 90°W

Thursday 20th [Nov.]   The breeze falling towards noon we set all our sails but still there is a strong wind with a head sea running.  We are all employed reeving Royal gear ready for crossing the Royal Yards. The boys working at the Mizen.  Lat 48.2N   Long 17.24W  Distance 154 miles Course S 28°W6

Friday 21st[Nov.]  Fine strong breeze glowing.Cloudy weather with all sail set and a large sea running.  The 2nd mate being laid up and requiring someone to attend on him. I do so on my watch on deck.  Lat 44.29N  Long 18.25W Distance 245 miles  Course S 10°W

November, Saturday 22nd.  Going along about the rate of 13 or 14 knots all day with a strong wind blowing from the N.E. under all sail. The weather is rather cloudy and there is a lot of water coming aboard  Lat 39.42N  Long 21.34W  Distance 330 miles  Course S 26°W

Sunday 23th [Nov.]   Taking in all our light sails. Very strong wind with a heavy sea running.  It don’t seem like a Sunday as the boys are relieving one another at the lee wheel.   Heavy rain squalls every little while but wind decreasing towards evening.   Lat34.24N  Long 23.0W Distance 300 miles  Course S 12°W7

Monday 24th [Nov.]  Clear sky with very light winds, very hot. Getting the gear fixed on the Royal Yard. Bending the sails on the yards, crossing them.  Lat 31.8N  Long 23.33W   Distance 198 miles Course S 8°W8

Thursday 25th [Nov.]  Rain coming down every now and again with heavy squalls. The three top-gallant sails set. A heavy squall coming down about five o’clock. We called all hands took the three topsails in reefed the mainsail.   Lat 29.4N   Long 23.52W   Distance 100 miles Course S 12°W.9

November,Wednesday 26th.  Weather moderating reefed the three topsails set them. Later on we shaked the reefs out the topsails and mainsails set them. The weather still moderating. We set all sail,& are now going along about the rate of nine knots with the wind from the westerd.  Lat 25.41N   Long 23.59W   Distance284 miles  Course S 8° W

Thursday 27th [Nov.]   We are now in the Tropics so expect nothing but fine weather. We are all employed shifting our hard weather sails for fine weather ones. The wind is gradualy [sic] falling away. North westerly winds.  Lat 22.12N   Long 24.41W  Distance 208 miles Course S 12°W

Friday28th [Nov.]   Fine clear weather, the wind is very variable and of very little account. We are finishing the shifting of our sails today and preparing the studding sail gear, booms,yards, etc. to get them fixed up for the studding sails.  We have now fallen across a wind supposed to be The Trades.  Lat 20.45N   Long 25.9W  Distance 89miles  Course S 12°W10

The sails of a square rigger
Saturday 29th [Nov.]   Light trade winds and fine clear weather.  Rigged out the studding gear and booms yards, bent the [indecipherable] sails and set them on the port side. Wind from the east and ESE.  Lat 18.43N   Long26.6W  Distance 185 miles  Course S 15°W

November, Saturday 30th.  Moderate wind and clear weather.  Fore, lower and top cast studding sail set on Port side.  Lat 15.41N  Long 26.42W  Distance 185 miles  Course S 15°W

December, Monday 1st.  Moderate winds clear weather we are all employed getting up the emigrants boxes.  It is exceedingly warm.  Going along seven knots with the wind from ENE.  Lat 12.46N  Long 27.1W  Distance 179 miles  Course S 4°W

Tuesday, 2nd [Dec.]   Light winds very warm, clear weather.  All sail set studding sails set on Port side.  We are employed rigging out the flying boom bending the flying jib and setting it.  Blowing a six knot breeze from ENE. Lat 10.16N   Long 26.38W  Distance 163 miles  Course S 11°W

Wednesday, 3rd [Dec.]   Light winds clear weather all sail set.  Quarter Master & I washing paint work on poop.  The wind hauling round ahead towards the latter part of the day. We took in studding sails. 
Lat 7.16N  Long 26.11W  Distance 182 miles  Course S 9°W11

December, Thursday 4th. Moderate winds sky overcast, set studding sails  on morning took them in again on afternoon. Washing paint work. Going about five knots with an easterly wind.   Lat 8.31N  Long 26.37W  Distance 109 miles  Course S 15°W

Friday 5th [Dec.] Moderate variable winds heavy squalls the three Royals and top-gallant sails are off. Very heavy rain clearing up. Set all sail.  Going three knots with and E.S.E. wind.  Lat 3.55N  Long 27.10W  Distance 102miles  course S 20°W

Saturday 6th [Dec.]  Light winds sky overcast heavy rain squalls. We are employed squaring things aloft.  Going about five knots with the wind from the E.S.E.  Lat 2.17N  Long 27.8W  Distance 105 miles  Course S 15°W

Sunday 7th [Dec.] Moderate wind clear weather it is supposed we are now in the S.E. Trades.   Passed a Dutch barque. The boys employed in the Mizzen rigging.  Lat 0.36N  Long 29.6W  Distance 134 miles  course S 44°W12.

December, Monday 8th.  Moderate wind clear weather boys employed in Mizzen rigging hands clearing out the fore peak.  A fine 6 knot breeze blowing from S.E.   Lat 1.37S  Long 30.20W  Distance 152 miles  Course S 29°W13

Tuesday 9th [Dec.]  Moderate wind and clear weather.  Employed in the Mizzen topmast rigging.  Blowing steady from the S.E.  Going eight knots.   Lat 4.31S  Long 31.35W  Distance 189 miles  Course S 21°W

Wednesday, 10th [Dec.]   Steady wind and clear weather.  Boys employed taring down the Mizzen rigging hand    t[indecipherable] forward.  Passed a homeward bound barque called The Hampstead quite close. Blowing from E.S.E.  Going 8 & 9 knots.      Lat 7.55S  Long 31.59W  Distance 206 miles  Course S 7°W

Thursday 11th [Dec.]  Steady S.E.Trades from the clear weather all sail set. Passed an American brig stearing north. We are employed painting the half-round with netting around the poop. Going 8 knots Wind E by S.  Lat 11.19S  Long 31.56W  Distance 214miles  Course S 1°E.

December. Friday, 12th.  Steady trade winds and find weather.   All sail set.  The boys taking foot ropes down from Mizzen and repairing  them.  Hands doing ditto on fore & main.  Fine breeze from S N E. Going eight knots.    Lat 14.33S  Long 31.16W  Distance 190 miles  Course S 11°E

Saturday 13th [Dec.]  Very moderate winds & clear warm weather.  All sail set.  Hands employed at foot ropes.  Boy at Mizzen ditto.  Very light wind from the eastward.  Going two & three knots.  Lat 2.17N  Long 22.38W  Distance 102 miles  Course S 15°W

Sunday 14th [Dec.]  Exceedingly warm with a very light breeze & blowing from the S.E.  Held service on poop between 11 & twelve o’clock.  The passengers held a service among themselves between 7 & 8 in the evening.   Lat  0.36N  Long 29.6 W  Distance 134 miles  Course S 44°W

Monday 15th [Dec.]  Steady trade winds and fine warm weather still employed at foot ropes all sails set also the port studding sails on morning but took them in again at night.  Sky overcast at noon but soon cleared away again.     Lat 19.16S  Long 29.45W  Distance 63 miles  Course S 16°E

December. Tuesday 16th.  Moderate winds clear weather. Set studding sails.  Reeved new main braces. Saw the Island of Trinadad seven or eight miles on the Starboard beam.   Blowing a six knot breeze of wind from the Easterd.   Lat 21.17S  Long 29.2W  Distance 128 miles  Course S 19°W14.

Wednesday 17th [Dec.] Moderate winds & clear warm weather.  Took the rudder chains adrift chiped them covered them anew.  All sail set.  Wind from the E & S.E. and very unsteady.  Going 6 knots. 

Lat 23.47S  Long 28.20W  Distance 155 miles  Course S 15°E

Thursday 18th [Dec.]  Moderate wind & clear warm weather all sail set. Shifting the studding sails from the Port to the Starboard side. We are employed setting up the fore & main top-gallant and Royal rigging.  Wind from the N.  Going five knots.     Lat 25.44S  Long 27.10W  Distance 133 miles  Course S 29°E

Friday 19th [Dec.]  Light wind & cloudy weather.  Drizzling rain all sail set.  Starboard studding sails set.  Turning everything out of the fore-peak to look for black varnish which cannot be found.  Wind variable. Going 4, 6, 8, 12 knots.    Lat 27.20S  Long 26.26W  Distance 13 miles  Course S 20°E

December, Saturday 20th Strong winds & cloudy weather, all sail set.  The wind coming aft we hauled down starboard studding sails but soon afterwards set them.  Hands employed washing paint work on poop.  Wind variable 5, 7, 8 knots.    Lat 30.2S  Long 24.35 W  Distance 189 miles  Course S 31°E

Sunday 21st [Dec.]  Fine clear weather all sail set.  Starboard studding sails set, held service on poop at eleven. The surgeon conducting it.  Passengers held another among themselves at five o’clock.  Wind S.S.E. Going 7, 8 knots.  Lat 32.8 S  Long 22.28 W  Distance 166 miles  Course S 44°W

Monday 22nd [Dec.]  Strong breeze and fine cold weather.  All sail set starboard studding sails set.  All hands employed getting passengers luggage up from below and stowing them away again.  Blowing an eleven knot breeze from West.    Lat 34.46S  Long 19.0W  Distance 237 miles  Course S 44°W

Tuesday 23rd[Dec.]  Strong breeze and clear weather all sail set. Starboard studding sails set. Hands employed unbending fine weather sails and bending the hard, [indecipherable] ones.  Wind from S.S.W.  Going 11, 9, 7 knots. Lat 37.40S  Long 15.20W  Distance 248 miles  Course S 46°E

December, Wednesday 24th.  Wind very unsteady clear weather.  Took in studding sails.  Unbending the fine weather head sails and bending the others.  Wind northerly.  Going nine knots.  Lat 38.35S  Long 11.50W  Distance 210 miles  Course  S 72°E

Thursday 25th [Dec.] Christmas has come again.  Steady wind and clear weather. All sail set.  Starboard studding sails set.  Could hardly believe it was not Sunday only there was lots of music {vocal & instrumental} and dancing.  Wind & going ten knots. Lat 39.31S  Long 6.53W  Distance 238 miles  Course S 76°E

Friday 26th [Dec.]  Steady wind and clear weather. All sail set.  Set Port Studin sails.  Clearing out foxhold.  Going eleven knots with the wind from the N.N.W.   Lat 40.25S  Long 1.53W  Distance 236 miles  Course S 77°E

Saturday 27th [Dec.]  Strong steady breeze and clear weather.  All sail set.  Shifted Studdin sails over to the Starboard side.  Variously employed.  Going eleven knots with a strong breeze from the N.W.  Lat 40.59S  Long 4.18E  Distance 281 miles  Course S 85°E

Sunday 28th [Dec.] Moderate fresh breeze and fine weather.  All sail set.  Starboard studdin sails set.  Held service down the main hatch, at 11 am, conducted by the schoolmaster.  Going 9 knots with a breeze from the N.W.    Lat 41.26S  Long 9.20E  Distance 230 miles  Course S 88°E

Monday 29th [Dec.] Strong breeze and clear weather.  Hands unbending fore-topsail & bending a new one.  Wind variable.  Going nine knots.     Lat 42.5S  Long 14.54E  Distance 250 miles  Course S 82°E

Tuesday 30th [Dec.]  Wind very unsteady and clear weather 10 a.m.  Breeze coming away set port studdin sails  2 pm.  Wind again unsteady took in Studdin sails very squally.  Going 9 knots. Wind variable.  Lat 42.0 S  Long 18.33 E  Distance 163 miles  Course N 88°E

Wednesday 31st [Dec.]  This the last day of the year 1879.  Wish everybody a Merry Christmas & a happy New Year. Fresh breeze and drizzling rain all sail set. Sudden shift of wind at 6 pm.  Going 11 knots with a NNW wind.    Lat 42.2s  Long 24.79E  Distance 265 miles  Course S 89°E

January,Thursday 1st [1880] New Year’s Day. Opened the cake this morning but it was quite uneatable, shan’t try to keep one for any time again, as it is labour lost.  Moderate wind & fine weather all sail set.  Starboard Studdin sails set.  Wind shifted round to the other quarter shifted Studdin sails over to Port.   Lat 44.4S  Long 29.5E  Distance 213miles  Course S 82°E

Friday 2nd [Jan.]  Strong breeze & cloudyweather.  All sail set.  Set Port studdin-sails.  11 o’clock wind very unsteady and falling.  LightN.W. wind.  Going 13, 9, 6, 4 knots.  Lat 44.19 S  Long 35.13E  Distance 265miles  Course S 87°E

Saturday 3rd [Jan.]  Moderate light winds and clear weather.  Holy-stoning poop port side.  Shifting main braces end for end.  All sail set.  Going 9 knots wind variable.    Lat 44.22S  Long 38.1E  Distance 121miles  Course S 89 E

Sunday 4th [Jan.]  Strong breeze drizzling rain.  All sail set.  Two men on the look-out, fog as thick as a hedge.  Going thirteen knots with a N.N.W. Wind.    Dead Reckoning:  Lat 44.28S  Long 44.35E  Distance 282 miles  Course East.15

January 1800, Monday 5th.  Moderate winds thick weather.  A drizzling rain.  All sail set, two men on look-out.  Scrubbing bright work.  N.W. winds.  Going 9 knots.    Dead Reckoning:  Lat 44.6 S  Long 50.15E  Distance 246 miles  Course N 86°E16

Tuesday 6th [Jan.]  Wind very unsteady, clear weather.  Scrubbing bright work, working ship, etc.  Wind varying westerly.  Going 5 ½ knots.    Lat 43.34 S  Long 53.22E  Distance 138 miles  Course S 76°E

Wednesday 7th[Jan.]  Strong wind and clear weather.  All sail set excepting Starboard studdin-sails.  Cleaning that miserable bright work again.  Wind about half a point on Starboard quarter & West. Going 9 knots.  Dead reckoning:  Lat 43.56 S Long 59.1 E  Distance 244miles  Course S 86°E

Thursday  8th [Jan.]  Strong breeze and cloudy weather.  Shifted studdin sails over to port side.  Still cleaning bright work.  Going 12 knots with the wind from the N.W.   Lat 44.47S  Long 64.24E  Distance 253 miles  Course S 75°E

Friday 9th [Jan.]  Light cloudy weather with a drizzling rain.  Employed cleaning bright work.  Winds N.W.  Going 6, 7, 8, 9, 12 knots.     Lat 48.16S  Long 69.35E  Distance 221 miles  Course S 85°E

Saturday 10th [Jan.]  Moderate strong breeze and cloudy weather, heavy rain falling.  Cleaning bright work.  All sail except fore and aft sails.  Starboard studdin-sails set.  Going 12 knots with a strong W.N.W. wind.   Lat 45.6S  Long 74.19E  Distance 208 miles  Course N 87°E

Sunday 11th [Jan.]  Strong breeze and clear weather.  All sail set.  Shifted studdin-sails over to port.  Held service on the poop between the hours of 11 & 12, conducted by the surgeon.  Wind N.W.  Going 11 knots. Lat 45.32S  Long 81.4E  Distance 289 miles  Course S 85°E

Monday 12th [Jan.]  Strong breeze right aft all square sail set.  Shifted stun-sails over to Starboard.  Hands employed at sand & canvas on the bright work.  Blowing a twelve knot breeze from the N.W.   Lat 47.2S  Long 87.34E  Distance 286 miles  Course S 71°E

Tuesday 13th [Jan.]  Moderate strong breeze and cloudy weather.  Wind hauled round a little more on the quarter.  Set all the fore and aft sails.  Starboard stunsails set, cleaning bright work. Blowing a nine knot breeze from the N.N.W.    Lat 46.47S  Long 95.10E  Distance 230 miles  Course N 84°E

Wednesday 14th [Jan.]   Strong breeze of wind right aft.  All fore and aft sails in Noon.  Very squally with showers of hail and rain at intervals.  Hands employed cleaning bright work.  Going 12 knots with a strong breeze from W by S.    Lat 47.59S  Long 99.4E  Distance 254 miles  Course S 73°E

Thursday 15th [Jan.]  Shifted stunsails over to Starboard.  Strong breeze and cloudy weather.  Hands variously employed.  Going 12 knots with the wind from W by S.    Lat 48.2S  Long 106.13E  Distance 287 miles  Course S 89°E

Friday 16th [Jan.]  Strong breeze and cloudy weather.  Set fore and aft sails on morning, took them in again on towards evening.  Hands variously employed.  Blowing a 11 ½ knot breeze from W.S.W.  Carried away port stunsail boom.       Lat 48.30 S  Long 113.11 E  Distance 287 miles  Course S 86°E17.

Saturday 17th [Jan.]  Strong steady breeze and cloudy weather.  Wind aft set the Starboard stun sails.  Carpentar [sic] making a knew stunsail boom, hurrying up with it.  Got the boom rigged out and the wind veering round.  Set the sails on the port side.  Going 12 knots with a westerly breeze.   Lat 48.23S  Long 119.51E  Distance 269 miles  Course N 88°E

Sunday 18th [Jan.]  Strong steady winds and cloudy weather.  Port Stun-sails set and all fore and aft sails.  Drizzling rain, heavy sea running.  Held service down main hatch.  N.W. winds.  Going from 13 -14 knots.  Lat 48.43 S  Long 126.6 E  Distance 258 miles  Course S 87°E

Monday 19th [Jan.]  Strong breeze and cloudy weather.  All sail set.  Took in Stun sails and light weather fore and aft sails.  Everybody employed cleaning bright work.  Wind W.N.W.  Going from 10 to 14 knots.   Lat 48.43S  Long 133.25E  Distance 263 miles  Course S 89°E

Thursday 20th[Jan.]  Strong breeze,  wind veering ahead.  Took all the light weather sails in Royals.  Mid-day in top-gallant sails.  Set top-gallant sails at 4p.m.   Royals at 6 p.m.  Wind Right aft.  Midnight. Going from ten to twelve knots with a fair wind & all square sailset.   Lat 49.29S  Long 140.13E Distance 243 miles  Course S 79°E

Wednesday 21st [Jan.]   Strong breeze and cloudy weather.  All square sail set.  Strong sea running, carried away the main top-gallant stay sail sheet twice and tore all the leech.   Had to unbind it send it down on deck, get it repaired. Send it up and bend it again in the second dog watch.  Going from 11 to 13 knots with the wind from W.S.W.       Lat 47.19S  Long 147.35E  Distance 213 miles  Course  S 79°E18

Thursday 22nd [Jan.]  Moderate breeze and cloudy weather.  All sail set, except fore and afters shifted stun sails over.  Hands employed cleaning bright work on poop.  Drizzling rain.  Going from 6 to 10 knots with the wind N. Westerly.     Lat 47.4 S  Long 153.4E  Distance 242 miles  Course N 72°E

Friday 23rd [Jan.]  Moderate breeze and cloudy weather.  All sail set.  Set post stunsails. Scrubbing bright [work] on fore-castle head.  Going from 6 to 9 knots with the wind N and westerly.   Lat 47.33S  Long 156.46E Distance 143 miles  Course S 78°E

Saturday 24th [Jan.]  Light wind and cloudy weather, sailing on a wind.  Passed about twenty miles to the southerd of The Snares between two and three on Sunday morning.  Expecting to be in Port on Monday at the very latest, which will make a passage of 75 days.  Lat 48.24 S  Long 161.33 E  Distance 211 miles  Course N 76°E19

Sunday [25 Jan.]  Light winds and cloudy weather.  All sail set.  Hands employed rigging in stun sail booms and putting them down the masts making the gear up in jugs ? and stowing it away.

Monday [26 Jan.]  Strong winds and cloudy weather 11 a.m. Made our first land fall at Nuggets about sixty miles S. of P.C.   Arrived off the heads about 5 o’clock.  The Pilot came on board and the Koputai came out but it was blowing too hard to tow us in.  Droped [sic] anchor and picked anchor watches and lay their [sic – there] all night.20.

Thursday [27 Jan.]  Strong winds and cloudy weather.  The tow boat made an attempt to tow in and after a hard struggle we were towed up to within a few hundred yards of getty.  Dropped anchor.   Set the anchor watches and lay their [sic, there] all night.

Wednesday [28 Jan.]  Came alongside the warfe [sic] this morning.  Discharged all the passengers and there [sic, their] luggage and sent them up to Dunedin. 

The Canterbury has made the quickest voyage this season.


  1. James Kilpatrick was doing his apprenticeship on this voyage.  The Canterbury was a square rigged vessel, with three masts.
  2. Tail of the Bank, Greenock, is now on East India Company Rue Street, Greenock, River Clyde, Scotland.  The Flying Huntress was a paddle tug boat, built in 1878, and used for manoeuvring larger vessels in and out of ports.
  3. Knot is a unit of speed equal to one nautical mile per hour, exactly 1.852 km/h (approximately 1.15078 mph).   The knot is used in meteorology, and in maritime and air navigation—for example, a vessel travelling at 1 knot along a meridian travels approximately one minute of geographic latitude in one hour.      Etymologically, the term derives from counting the number of knots in the line that unspooled from the reel of a chip log in a specific time.
  4. Reef & Reefing temporarily reduces the area of a sail exposed to the wind, usually to guard against adverse effects of strong wind or to slow the vessel.
  5. Editor’s Note: Should be Long 15.1W.
  6. Reeve: to pass a rope or cable through an eye or other narrow opening;   Royal in large sailing ships, refers to a mast right above the top gallant mast, and the sail of such a mast;  Gear refers to a vessels sails and rigging;  Rigging is the system of masts and lines on a sailing vessel;  Mizen (or mizzen) is a staysail, usually lightweight, set from, and forward of, the mizen mast while sailing at an angle in light to moderate winds;  Boy Seaman:  a young sailor, still in training.
  7. Lee wheel: the share in steering done by one or more assistants to a ship’s helmsman.
  8. Bending (Nautical term) was the word mariners used when they spoke of fastening something. So bending a sail refers to the act of fastening the sail to its yard or stay.  Unbending was the act of unfastening something. Hence to unbend a sail was to unfasten it from a yard or stay, more often than not so that it could be disassembled into its several reefs and repaired.
  9. Topsail:  The second sail (counting from the bottom) up a mast.
  10. A studding sail, studsail or stunsail (traditionally pronounced stuns’l) is an extra sail on a square rigged vessel for use in light winds.  Square rig is a generic type of sail and rigging arrangement in which the primary driving sails are carried on horizontal spars which are perpendicular, or square, to the keel of the vessel and to the masts. … A ship mainly so rigged is called a square-rigger.
  11. Poop deck is a high deck on the aft superstructure of a ship.
  12. A sailing vessel of three or more masts, with all masts but the stern most square-rigged, the sternmost being fore-and-aft-rigged.
  13. Forepeak is the part of the hold of a ship within the angle of the bow.
  14. Still in the Atlantic Ocean.  Starboard:  The right side of the boat. Towards the right-hand side of a vessel facing forward.  Denoted with a green light at night.  Derived from the old steering oar or steerboard which preceded the invention of the rudder.
  15. Ded. Reckoning: Abbreviation for “Deduced reckoning” and often mistakenly referred to as “dead reckoning”.  A method of navigation by determining the ship’s position using only its previously known position and deriving its new position from the course, speed, and elapsed time provided by instruments or estimation.  Ded. Reckoning is used when no other forms of more precise navigation are available (for example, because a ship is fogged in) because all errors are additive and must be corrected for when better navigation information is available, such as the sighting of a landmark or a celestial navigation position fix.
  16. Brightwork: On boats, particularly wooden boats, brightwork is exposed metal and varnished woodworking. The metal is usually brass or bronze that is kept polished.   In the past, due to the environmental exposure experienced by boats, corrosion and UV damage made maintaining brightwork  extremely labour-intensive.
  17. boom (nautical) is a spar or pole, along the foot of a fore and aft rigged sail, that greatly improves control of the angle and shape of the sail. The primary action of the boom is to keep the foot flatter when the sail angle is away from the center line of the boat
  18. Leech is the back edge of the sail.  Dog watch:  A short watch period, generally half the usual time (e.g. a two-hour watch rather than a four-hour one). Such watches might be included in order to rotate the system over different days for fairness, or to allow both watches to eat their meals at approximately normal times.
  19. Snares Islands, also known as The Snares, is a small island group lying about 200 km south of New Zealand‘s South Island.
  20. The Nuggets are small rocky islets offshore from Nugget Point, New Zealand, 50 miles south of Port Chalmers, which is the main port for Dunedin.  It now has a lighthouse.  Koputai is a popular name for Port Chalmers pilot boats

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